Discontinuing individual Salah upon commencement of congregation

Question:

Assalam u Alaikum
Please advise me in the following two conditions.
My university has a Musalla where students come and pray whenever they find time. And it so happens that you are praying the Sunnah prayers of Zuhr and a group comes and starts a Jamaah. Now am i supposed to break my sallah and join them or continue with my Sunnat prayer and join the Jamaat after completing it?

Secondly, suppose i am praying the Fard prayer individually because there was no one there to start and jamaat. And whilst i am praying a group enters the musalla and starts the Jamaat. Am i supposed to continue with my own individual salah or break it and join the jamaat.

Please shed some light in the above two issues.
JazakAllah

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

  1. If the Jamaa’ah (congregation) of Dhuhr commences while one is performing the Sunnah of Dhuhr, he should continue his Salah and join the Jamaa’ah after completing his Salah.[1]

 

  1. If one is performing a Fardh Salah individually and the Jamaa’ah of the same Fardh commences, the ruling will depend upon the nature of the scenario. Hereunder are the scenarios with their respective rulings:

 

  • If one is performing a four Raka’aat Fardh Salah individually such as Dhuhr, Asr or Isha and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he is in the first Rak’ah and has not yet performed the first Sajdah of the first Rak’ah, he should discontinue the Salah immediately by making one Salaam and join the Jamaa’ah.[1]
  • If one is performing a four Raka’aat Fardh Salah individually such as Dhuhr, Asr or Isha and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he has already performed the first Sajdah of the first Rak’ah, then he should add one more Rak’ah and complete two Raka’aat. Thereafter he should join the Jamaa’ah.[2]
  • If one is performing a four Raka’aat Fardh Salah individually such as Dhuhr, Asr or Isha and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he is in the third Rak’ah but has not yet performed the first Sajdah of the third Rak’ah, he should discontinue his Salah immediately by making one Salaam and join the Jamaa’ah.[3]
  • If one is performing a four Raka’aat Fardh Salah individually such as Dhuhr, Asr or Isha and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he has already performed the first Sajdah of the third Rak’ah, then he should complete all four Raka’aat of Fardh. Thereafter, he may join the congregation with the intention of Nafl (optional Salah) in order to receive the reward of Jamaa’ah. However, he may only join the congregation after the Dhuhr and Isha Salah, as there is no Nafl after the Asr Salah.[4]
  • If one is performing Fajr or Maghrib Salah individually and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he is in the first or second Rak’ah and has not yet performed the first Sajdah of the second Rak’ah, he should discontinue his Salah immediately by making one Salaam and join the Jamaa’ah.[5]
  • If one is performing Fajr or Maghrib Salah individually and the Jamaa’ah commences, if he has already performed the Sajdah of the second Rak’ah, then he should complete the Salah. He may not join the Jamaa’ah upon completion of his individual Salah.[6]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

(Mufti) Abdul Azeem bin Abdur Rahman

 

 

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The Shar’a ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.

 

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[1]  (شَرَعَ فِيهَا أَدَاءً) خَرَجَ النَّافِلَةُ وَالْمَنْذُورَةُ وَالْقَضَاءُ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَقْطَعُهَا (مُنْفَرِدًا ثُمَّ أُقِيمَتْ) أَيْ شُرِعَ فِي الْفَرِيضَةِ فِي مُصَلَّاهُ، لَا إقَامَةُ الْمُؤَذِّنِ وَلَا الشُّرُوعُ فِي مَكَان وَهُوَ فِي غَيْرِهِ (يَقْطَعُهَا) لِعُذْرِ إحْرَازِ الْجَمَاعَةِ كَمَا لَوْ نَدَّتْ دَابَّتُهُ أَوْ فَارَ قِدْرُهَا، أَوْ خَافَ ضَيَاعَ دِرْهَمٍ مِنْ مَالِهِ، أَوْ كَانَ فِي النَّفْلِ فَجِيءَ بِجِنَازَةٍ وَخَافَ فَوْتَهَا قَطَعَهُ لِإِمْكَانِ قَضَائِهِ.

وَيَجِبُ الْقَطْعُ لِنَحْوِ إنْجَاءِ غَرِيقٍ أَوْ حَرِيقٍ. وَلَوْ دَعَاهُ أَحَدُ أَبَوَيْهِ فِي الْفَرْضِ لَا يُجِيبُهُ إلَّا أَنْ يَسْتَغِيثَ بِهِ. وَفِي النَّفْلِ إنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ فِي الصَّلَاةِ فَدَعَاهُ لَا يُجِيبُهُ وَإِلَّا أَجَابَهُ (قَائِمًا) لِأَنَّ الْقُعُودَ مَشْرُوطٌ لِلتَّحَلُّلِ، وَهَذَا قَطْعٌ لَا تَحَلُّلٌ، وَيَكْتَفِي (بِتَسْلِيمَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ) (وَيَقْتَدِي بِالْإِمَامِ) وَهَذَا (إنْ لَمْ يُقَيِّدْ الرَّكْعَةَ الْأُولَى بِسَجْدَةٍ (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 50-52، سعيد)

 

[2]  (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ فِيهَا إلَخْ) أَيْ أَوْ قَيَّدَ الرَّكْعَةَ الْأُولَى بِسَجْدَةٍ فِي الرُّبَاعِيَّةِ فَإِنَّهُ أَيْضًا يَقْتَدِي وَلَكِنْ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَضُمَّ إلَيْهَا رَكْعَةً صِيَانَةً لِلرَّكْعَةِ الْمُؤَدَّاةِ عَنْ الْبُطْلَانِ كَمَا صَرَّحُوا بِهِ. (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52، سعيد)

 

[3]  لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ فِي الثَّالِثَةِ وَلَمْ يُقَيِّدْهَا بِسَجْدَةٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْطَعُهَا لِأَنَّهُ بِمَحَلِّ الرَّفْضِ. وَيَتَخَيَّرُ إنْ شَاءَ عَادَ وَقَعَدَ وَسَلَّمَ، وَإِنْ شَاءَ كَبَّرَ قَائِمًا يَنْوِي الدُّخُولَ فِي صَلَاةِ الْإِمَامِ، كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ. وَفِي الْمُحِيطِ: الْأَصَحُّ أَنَّهُ يَقْطَعُ قَائِمًا بِتَسْلِيمَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ لِأَنَّ الْقُعُودَ مَشْرُوطٌ لِلتَّحَلُّلِ، وَهَذَا قَطْعٌ وَلَيْسَ بِتَحَلُّلٍ، فَإِنَّ التَّحَلُّلَ عَنْ الظُّهْرِ لَا يَكُونُ عَلَى رَأْسِ الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ، وَيَكْفِيهِ تَسْلِيمَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ لِلْقَطْعِ انْتَهَى: وَهَكَذَا صَحَّحَهُ فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ مَعْزِيًّا إلَى فَخْرِ الْإِسْلَامِ. اهـ. (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52-53، سعيد)

 

[4]  (وَإِنْ صَلَّى ثَلَاثًا مِنْهَا) أَيْ الرُّبَاعِيَّةِ (أَتَمَّ) مُنْفَرِدًا (ثُمَّ اقْتَدَى) بِالْإِمَامِ (مُتَنَفِّلًا، وَيُدْرِكُ) بِذَلِكَ (فَضِيلَةَ الْجَمَاعَةِ) حَاوِي (إلَّا فِي الْعَصْرِ) فَلَا يَقْتَدِي لِكَرَاهَةِ النَّفْلِ بَعْدَهُ (الدرالمختار مع رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52-53، سعيد)

قال ابن عابدين في شرحه:

(قَوْلُهُ وَإِنْ صَلَّى ثَلَاثًا مِنْهَا) أَيْ بِأَنْ قَيَّدَ الثَّالِثَةَ بِسَجْدَةٍ. (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52، سعيد)

 

[5]  وَإِنْ قَيَّدَهَا بِسَجْدَةٍ فِي غَيْرِ رُبَاعِيَّةٍ كَالْفَجْرِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْطَعُ وَيَقْتَدِي أَيْضًا مَا لَمْ يُقَيِّدْ الثَّانِيَةَ بِسَجْدَةٍ (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52، سعيد)

 

[6]  وَإِنْ قَيَّدَهَا بِسَجْدَةٍ فِي غَيْرِ رُبَاعِيَّةٍ كَالْفَجْرِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْطَعُ وَيَقْتَدِي أَيْضًا مَا لَمْ يُقَيِّدْ الثَّانِيَةَ بِسَجْدَةٍ، فَإِنْ قَيَّدَهَا أَتَمَّ، وَلَا يَقْتَدِي لِكَرَاهَةِ التَّنَفُّلِ بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ، وَبِالثَّلَاثِ فِي الْمَغْرِبِ، وَفِي جَعْلِهَا أَرْبَعًا مُخَالَفَةً لِإِمَامِهِ (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 52، سعيد)