Qasr (Shortening prayers) query

Question:

Assalamu Alaikum,

My wife and I came to Illinois, US in 2012 for studies. I graduated first and got a job in Indiana. My wife is yet to finish her studies. My wife now lives in Illinois and I work in Indiana. Therefore, I stay in an apartment in Indiana from Monday to Friday. I drive back to Illinois on Friday evening and stay there until Sunday/Monday morning. The difference between our Illinois and Indiana apartments is 167 miles and it takes 2.5 hours to get there by driving. Now, my question is do I have to pray Qasr? If yes, in which place, Indiana or Illinois?

Jazak Allahu Khairan
Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

In principle, a place in which one takes up residence with one’s family becomes his al-Watan al-Asli i.e. a place wherein one is considered a local resident and the laws of Safr (travel) will not apply. When you took up residence in Illinois with your family, Illinois had become your al-Watan al-Asli and it will remain your al-Watan al-Asli as long as your wife remains there.[1] Hence, you will perform your normal complete Salah in Illinois even though your visit there may be less than 15 days.

With regards to Indiana, if you intend to settle there, it is also considered your al-Watan al-Asli due to which you will perform your normal complete Salah there as well, even though your stay in Indiana may be less than 15 days.[2]

However, if your intention is not to settle in Indiana and you are there temporarily, it is not your al-Watan al-Asli. If this is the case, then there are two possibilities:

  1. You have never stayed in Indiana continuously for 15 days. In this case, you will shorten your prayers in Indiana if your stay in Indiana is less than 15 days.

 

  1. You have stayed at least one time in Indiana for 15 days continuously. In this case, Indiana had become your al-Watan al-Iqamah (temporary residence). [3] The ruling for al-Watan al-Iqamah is that you will perform your normal complete Salah so long as you have your belongings and accommodation in your al-Watan al-Iqamah.[4] Hence, you will perform your normal complete Salah in Indiana as long as your belongings and accommodation are in Indiana even though you may remain in Indiana less than 15 days during each stay.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

(Mufti) Abdul Azeem bin Abdur Rahman

 

Checked and Concurred by my esteemed Ustadh,

Mufti Husain Kadodia Saheb Hafidhahullah

 

Disclaimer:

 

The Shar’a ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.

 

Darul Iftaa Texas bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.

 

This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of Darul Iftaa Texas

[1]   وَالْوَطَنُ الْأَصْلِيُّ هُوَ وَطَنُ الْإِنْسَانِ فِي بَلْدَتِهِ أَوْ بَلْدَةٍ أُخْرَى اتَّخَذَهَا دَارًا وَتَوَطَّنَ بِهَا مَعَ أَهْلِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ، وَلَيْسَ مِنْ قَصْدِهِ الِارْتِحَالُ عَنْهَا بَلْ التَّعَيُّشُ بِهَا وَهَذَا الْوَطَنُ يَبْطُلُ بِمِثْلِهِ لَا غَيْرُ، وَهُوَ أَنْ يَتَوَطَّنَ فِي بَلْدَةٍ أُخْرَى وَيَنْقُلَ الْأَهْلَ إلَيْهَا فَيَخْرُجَ الْأَوَّلُ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ وَطَنًا أَصْلِيًّا حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلَهُ مُسَافِرًا لَا يُتِمُّ قَيَّدْنَا بِكَوْنِهِ انْتَقَلَ عَنْ الْأَوَّلِ بِأَهْلِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ لَمْ يَنْتَقِلْ بِهِمْ، وَلَكِنَّهُ اسْتَحْدَثَ أَهْلًا فِي بَلْدَةٍ أُخْرَى فَإِنَّ الْأَوَّلَ لَمْ يَبْطُلْ وَيُتِمُّ فِيهِمَا وَقَيَّدَ بِقَوْلِهِ بِمِثْلِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ بَاعَ دَارِهِ وَنَقَلَ عِيَالَهُ وَخَرَجَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتَوَطَّنَ بَلْدَةً أُخْرَى ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ أَنْ لَا يَتَوَطَّنَ مَا قَصَدَهُ أَوَّلًا وَيَتَوَطَّنَ بَلْدَةً غَيْرَهَا فَمَرَّ بِبَلَدِهِ الْأَوَّلِ فَإِنَّهُ يُصَلِّي أَرْبَعًا؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَتَوَطَّنْ غَيْرَهُ، وَفِي الْمُحِيطِ، وَلَوْ كَانَ لَهُ أَهْلٌ بِالْكُوفَةِ، وَأَهْلٌ بِالْبَصْرَةِ فَمَاتَ أَهْلُهُ بِالْبَصْرَةِ وَبَقِيَ لَهُ دُورٌ وَعَقَارٌ بِالْبَصْرَةِ قِيلَ الْبَصْرَةِ لَا تَبْقَى وَطَنًا لَهُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا إنَّمَا كَانَتْ وَطَنًا بِالْأَهْلِ لَا بِالْعَقَارِ، أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّهُ لَوْ تَأَهَّلَ بِبَلْدَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ فِيهَا عَقَارٌ صَارَتْ وَطَنًا لَهُ، وَقِيلَ تَبْقَى وَطَنًا لَهُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا كَانَتْ وَطَنًا لَهُ بِالْأَهْلِ وَالدَّارِ جَمِيعًا فَبِزَوَالِ أَحَدِهِمَا لَا يَرْتَفِعُ الْوَطَنُ كَوَطَنِ الْإِقَامَةِ يَبْقَى بِبَقَاءِ الثَّقَلِ وَإِنْ أَقَامَ بِمَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ اهـ.

وَفِي الْمُجْتَبَى نَقْلُ الْقَوْلَيْنِ فِيمَا إذَا نَقَلَ أَهْلَهُ وَمَتَاعَهُ وَبَقِيَ لَهُ دُورٌ وَعَقَارٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَهَذَا جَوَابُ وَاقِعَةٍ اُبْتُلِينَا بِهَا وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الْمُتَوَطِّنِينَ فِي الْبِلَادِ، وَلَهُمْ دُورٌ وَعَقَارٌ فِي الْقُرَى الْبَعِيدَةِ مِنْهَا يُصَيِّفُونَ بِهَا بِأَهْلِهِمْ وَمَتَاعِهِمْ فَلَا بُدَّ مِنْ حِفْظِهَا أَنَّهُمَا وَطَنَانِ لَهُ لَا يَبْطُلُ أَحَدُهُمَا بِالْآخَرِ وَقَوْلُهُ لَا السَّفَرُ أَيْ لَا يَبْطُلُ الْأَصْلِيُّ بِالسَّفَرِ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ مُقِيمًا بِالْعَوْدِ إلَيْهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ نِيَّةِ الْإِقَامَةِ، وَكَذَا لَا يَبْطُلُ بِوَطَنِ الْإِقَامَةِ (البحر الرائق، ج 2، ص 136، سعيد)

 

امداد الأحكام، ج 1، ص 718-719، مكتبه دار العلوم كراتشى

 

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا، ج 2، ص 515، زمزم

 

[2]  (قَوْلُهُ أَوْ تَوَطُّنِهِ) أَيْ عَزَمَ عَلَى الْقَرَارِ فِيهِ وَعَدَمِ الِارْتِحَالِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَتَأَهَّلْ (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 131، سعيد)

[3]  (قَوْلُهُ وَيَبْطُلُ وَطَنُ الْإِقَامَةِ) يُسَمَّى أَيْضًا الْوَطَنَ الْمُسْتَعَارَ وَالْحَادِثَ وَهُوَ مَا خَرَجَ إلَيْهِ بِنِيَّةِ إقَامَةِ نِصْفِ شَهْرٍ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْأَصْلِيِّ مَسِيرَةُ السَّفَرِ أَوْ لَا، وَهَذَا رِوَايَةُ ابْنِ سِمَاعَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَنْهُ أَنَّ الْمَسَافَةَ شَرْطٌ وَالْأَوَّلُ هُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ عِنْدَ الْأَكْثَرِينَ قُهُسْتَانِيٌّ. (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 131، سعيد)

 

[4]  احسن الفتاوى، ج 4، ص 107-120، سعيد

فتاوى دارالعلوم زكريا، ج 2،  ص 509، زمزم