Making up fasts missed during pregnancy and nursing period
Assalamooalaykoom Dear Respected Brother Mufti,
Alhamdoolilah, Allah has blessed me with five children. During my pregnancies and nursing periods I was not able to fast during the month of Ramadan. My in laws had told me it was ok to pay to feed the poor in redemption of my missing the fasts of Ramadan and that was sufficient for what I had missed. However, recently it has been brought up to my attention that this is not correct and that I have to fast what I had missed. My in laws still disagree and I am not sure what the true reasoning is. If you can please shed some light on this matter and let me know what the correct ruling on this is, I would really appreciate it.
Jazak Allah Khayran.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
In principle, during pregnancy and during the nursing (breastfeeding) period, if a female fears harm to herself or to the baby, she is exempted from fasting. She must make up the missed fasts (Qadha) at a later time. There is no Fidyah (monetary compensation) upon her.
Fidyah is only binding on one who is permanently ill and does not anticipate recovery. In such a case, because there is no anticipation of regaining health to make up the missed fasts, Shariah has allowed Fidyah. This is not the case in pregnancy and the nursing period. In pregnancy and the nursing period, it is hoped that the female will regain health and will be able to make up the missed fasts at a later time. Hence, there is no meaning in giving Fidyah (monetary compensation) along with making up the fasts.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
(Mufti) Abdul Azeem bin Abdur Rahman
The Shar’a ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
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 (أَوْ حَامِلٍ أَوْ مُرْضِعٍ) أُمًّا كَانَتْ أَوْ ظِئْرًا عَلَى ظَاهِرِ (خَافَتْ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا أَوْ وَلَدِهَا) وَقَيَّدَهُ الْبَهْنَسِيُّ تَبَعًا لِابْنِ الْكَمَالِ بِمَا إذَا تَعَيَّنَتْ لِلْإِرْضَاعِ (أَوْ مَرِيضٍ خَافَ الزِّيَادَةَ) لِمَرَضِهِ وَصَحِيحٍ خَافَ الْمَرَضَ، وَخَادِمَةٍ خَافَتْ الضَّعْفَ بِغَلَبَةِ الظَّنِّ بِأَمَارَةٍ أَوْ تَجْرِبَةٍ أَوْ بِأَخْبَارِ طَبِيبٍ حَاذِقٍ مُسْلِمٍ مَسْتُورٍ وَأَفَادَ فِي النَّهْرَ تَبَعًا لِلْبَحْرِ جَوَازَ التَّطْبِيبَ بِالْكَافِرِ فِيمَا لَيْسَ فِيهِ إبْطَالُ عِبَادَةٍ. قُلْت: وَفِيهِ كَلَامٌ لِأَنَّ عِنْدَهُمْ نُصْحُ الْمُسْلِمِ كُفْرٌ فَأَنَّى يُتَطَبَّبُ بِهِمْ، وَفِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ لِلْأَمَةِ أَنْ تَمْتَنِعَ مِنْ امْتِثَالِ أَمْرِ الْمَوْلَى إذَا كَانَ يُعْجِزُهَا عَنْ إقَامَةِ الْفَرَائِضِ لِأَنَّهَا مُبْقَاةٌ عَلَى أَصْلِ الْحُرِّيَّةِ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ (الْفِطْر) يَوْمَ الْعُذْرِ إلَّا السَّفَرَ كَمَا سَيَجِيءُ (وَقَضَوْا) لُزُومًا (مَا قَدَّرُوا بِلَا فِدْيَةٍ وَ) (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 422-423، سعيد)
 قاموس الفقه، ج 3، ص 298، زمزم